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Istopatologia e diagnosi delle Porcine Circovirus Diseases (PCVD)



1. Harding, J. C. & Clark, E. G. Recognizing and diagnosing postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). J. Swine Health Prod. 5, 201-203 (1997).),

2. Segalés, J. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections: Clinical signs, pathology and laboratory diagnosis. Virus Res. 164, 10-19 (2012).

3. Alarcon, P., Rushton, J., Nathues, H., & Wieland, B., 2013. Economic efficiency analysis of different strategies to control post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome and porcine circovirus type 2 subclinical infection in 3-weekly batch system farms. Preventive veterinary medicine 110, 103-118

4. Dvorak, C. M., Payne, B. J., Seate, J. L., Murtaugh, M. P., 2018. Effect of maternal antibody transfer on antibody dynamics and control of porcine circovirus type 2 infection in offspring. Viral immunology 31, 40-46.

5. Dvorak, C. M., Yang, Y., Haley, C., Sharma, N., Murtaugh, M. P., 2016. National reduction in porcine circovirus type 2 prevalence following introduction of vaccination. Veterinary microbiology 189, 86-90.

6. Ellis, J., 2014. Porcine circovirus: a historical perspective. Veterinary pathology 51, 315-327.

7. Fort, M., Sibila, M., Allepuz, A., Mateu, E., Roerink, F., Segalés, J., 2008. Porcine circovirus type (PCV2) vaccination of conventional pigs prevents viremia against PCV2 isolates of different genotypes and geographic origins. Vaccine 26, 1063-1071.

8. Fraile, L., Grau-Roma, L., Sarasola, P., Sinovas, N., Nofrarías, M., López-Jimenez, R., López-Soria, S., Sibila, M., Segalés, J., 2012. Inactivated PCV2 one shot vaccine applied in 3-week-old piglets: improvement of production parameters and interaction with maternally derived immunity. Vaccine 30, 1986-1992.

9. Kurmann, J., Sydler, T., Brugnera, E., Buergi, E., Haessig, M., Suter, M., Sidler, X., 2011. Vaccination of dams increases antibody titer and improves growth parameters in finisher pigs subclinically infected with PCV2. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, CVI-05183. Ludwig, C., Wagner, R., 2007.

10. Pejsak, Z., Kusior, G., Pomorska-Mól, M., Podgórska, K., 2012. Influence of long-term vaccination of a breeding herd of pigs against PCV2 on reproductive parameters. Polish journal of veterinary sciences 15, 37-42.

11. Pejsak, Z., Podgórska, K., Truszczyński, M., Karbowiak, P., Stadejek, T., 2010. Efficacy of different protocols of vaccination against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in a farm affected by postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases 33, e1-e5.

12. Opriessnig, T., Patterson, A. R., Elsener, J., Meng, X. J., Halbur, P. G., 2008a. Influence of maternal antibodies on efficacy of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination to protect pigs from experimental infection with PCV2. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 15, 397-401.

13. Opriessnig, T., Patterson, A. R., Madson, D. M., Pal, N., Ramamoorthy, S., Meng, X. J., Halbur, P. G., 2010. Comparison of the effectiveness of passive (dam) versus active (piglet) immunization against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and impact of passively derived PCV2 vaccine-induced immunity on vaccination. Veterinary microbiology 142, 177-183.

14. Young, M. G., Cunningham, G. L., Sanford, S. E., 2011. Circovirus vaccination in pigs with subclinical porcine circovirus type 2 infection complicated by ileitis. Journal of Swine Health and Production 19, 175-180.

15. Kristensen, C.S.; Hjulsager, C.K.; Larsen, L.E. A two-year follow-up study of the PCV2 status of a Danish pig herd that was initially assumed to be PCV2-free. Porc. Health Manag. 2015, 1, 1-5.

16. Opriessnig, T.; Xiao, C.; Gerber, P.F.; Halbur, P.G. Emergence of a novel mutant PCV2b variant associated with clinical PCVAD in two vaccinated pig farms in the U.S. concurrently infected with PPV. Vet. Microbiol. 2013, 163, 177-183.

17. Seo, H.W.; Park, C.; Kang, I.; Choi, K.; Jeong, J.; Park, S.-J.; Chae, C. Genetic and antigenic characterization of a newly emerging porcine circovirus type 2b mutant first isolated in cases of vaccine failure in Korea. Arch. Virol. 2014, 159, 3107-3111.

18. Sibila, M.; Rocco, C.; Franzo, G.; Huerta, E.; Domingo, M.; Núñez, J.I.; Segalés, J. Genotyping of Porcine Circovirus 2 (PCV-2) in Vaccinated Pigs Suffering from PCV-2-Systemic Disease between 2009 and 2020 in Spain. Pathogens 2021, 10, 1016.

19. Segalés, J., & Sibila, M., 2022. Revisiting Porcine Circovirus Disease Diagnostic Criteria in the Current Porcine Circovirus 2 Epidemiological Context. Veterinary sciences 9, 110.

20. Meng, X.-J. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2): Pathogenesis and interaction with the immune system. Annu. Rev. Anim. Biosci. 1, 43-64 (2013).

21. Kekarainen, T. & Segalés, J. Porcine circovirus 2 immunology and viral evolution. Porcine Health Manag. 1, 17 (2015).)

22. Arruda, P.H.E. & Gauger, P., 2019. Optimizing Sample Selection, Collection, and Submission to Optimize Diagnostic Value, in: Diseases of Swine. Wiley, 98-111.

23. Burrough, E.R., Baum, D.H., Schwartz, K.J., 2019. Collecting Evidence and Establishing Causality, in: Diseases of Swine. Wiley, 112-122.

24. Haines, D.M., West, K.H., 2005. Immunohistochemistry: forging the links between immunology and pathology. Veterinary immunology and immunopathology 108, 151-156.

25. Gupta, E., Bhalla, P., Khurana, N., Singh, T., 2009. Histopathology for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. Indian journal of medical microbiology 27, 100-6.

26. Hofman, P., Lucas, S., Jouvion, G., Tauziède-Espariat, A., Chrétien, F., Cathomas, G., 2017. Pathology of infectious diseases: what does the future hold? Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology 470, 483-492.

27. Patterson, A. R., & Opriessnig, T. (2010). Epidemiology and horizontal transmission of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). Animal health research reviews, 11(2), 217-234.

28. Wang, Y., Noll, L., Lu, N., Porter, E., Stoy, C., Zheng, W., Liu, X., Peddireddi, L., Niederwerder, M., & Bai, J. (2020). Genetic diversity and prevalence of porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) and type 2 (PCV2) in the Midwest of the USA during 2016-2018. Transboundary and emerging diseases, 67(3), 1284-1294.

29. Ticó, G., Segalés, J., & Martínez, J. (2013). The blurred border between porcine circovirus type 2-systemic disease and porcine respiratory disease complex. Veterinary microbiology, 163(3-4), 242-247.

30. Baró, J., Segalés, J., & Martínez, J. (2015). Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) enteric disease: an independent condition or part of the systemic disease? Veterinary microbiology, 176(1-2), 83-87.

31. D’Annunzio et al 2023 PCV2 e PRRSV

32. Joaquim Segalés, Gordon M. Allan, Mariano Domingo circoviruses in Disease of swine

33. Harding, J. C., & Clark, E. G. (1997). Recognizing and diagnosing postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Journal of Swine Health and Production, 5(5), 201-203.

34. Chianini, F., Majo, N., Segalés, J., Domınguez, J., & Domingo, M. (2003). Immunohistochemical characterisation of PCV2 associate lesions in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues of pigs with natural postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 94(1-2), 63-75.

35. Sarli, G., Mandrioli, L., Laurenti, M., Sidoli, L., Cerati, C., Rolla, G., & Marcato, P. S. (2001). Immunohistochemical characterisation of the lymph node reaction in pig post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 83(1-2), 53-67.

36. Clark, E. G. (1997). Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. In Proc. Am. Assoc. Swine Pract. (Vol. 28, pp. 499-501).

37. Rosell, C., Segalés, J., Plana-Duran, J., Balasch, M., Rodrıguez-Arrioja, G. M., Kennedy, S., & Domingo, M. (1999). Pathological, immunohistochemical, and in-situ hybridization studies of natural cases of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in pigs. Journal of comparative pathology, 120(1), 59-78.

38. Darwich, L., Balasch, M., Plana-Duran, J., Segalés, J., Domingo, M., & Mateu, E. (2003). Cytokine profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in response to mitogen, superantigen or recall viral antigens. Journal of General Virology, 84(12), 3453-3457.

39. Segalés, J., Rosell, C., & Domingo, M. (2004). Pathological findings associated with naturally acquired porcine circovirus type 2 associated disease. Veterinary microbiology, 98(2), 137-149.

40. West, K. H., Bystrom, J. M., Wojnarowicz, C., Shantz, N., Jacobson, M., Allan, G. M., & Ellis, J. A. (1999). Myocarditis and abortion associated with intrauterine infection of sows with porcine circovirus 2. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 11(6), 530-532.

41. Madson, D. M., Patterson, A. R., Ramamoorthy, S., Pal, N., Meng, X. J., & Opriessnig, T. (2009). Reproductive failure experimentally induced in sows via artificial insemination with semen spiked with porcine circovirus type 2. Veterinary pathology, 46(4), 707-716.

42. Mikami, O., Nakajima, H., Kawashima, K., Yoshii, M., & Nakajima, Y. (2005). Nonsuppurative myocarditis caused by porcine circovirus type 2 in a weak-born piglet. Journal of veterinary medical science, 67(7), 735-738.

43. Mateusen, B., Sanchez, R. E., Van Soom, A., Meerts, P., Maes, D. G. D., & Nauwynck, H. J. (2004). Susceptibility of pig embryos to porcine circovirus type 2 infection. Theriogenology, 61(1), 91-101.

44. Wellenberg, G. J., Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N., De Jong, M. F., Boersma, W. J. A., & Elbers, A. R. W. (2004). Excessive porcine circovirus type 2 antibody titres may trigger the development of porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome: a case-control study. Veterinary microbiology, 99(3-4), 203-214.

45. Segalés, J., Piella, J., Marco, E., Mateu‐de‐Antonio, E. M., Espuna, E., & Domingo, M. (1998). Porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome in Spain. Veterinary record, 142(18), 483-486.

46. Olvera, A., Sibila, M., Calsamiglia, M., Segalés, J., & Domingo, M. (2004). Comparison of porcine circovirus type 2 load in serum quantified by a real time PCR in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome naturally affected pigs. Journal of virological methods, 117(1), 75-80.

47. Grau-Roma, L., Stockmarr, A., Kristensen, C. S., Enøe, C., López-Soria, S., Nofrarías, M., Bille-Hansen, V., Hjulsager, C. K., Sibila, M., Jorsal, S. E., Fraile, L., Baekbo, P., Vigre, H., Segalés, J., & Larsen, L. E. (2012). Infectious risk factors for individual postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) development in pigs from affected farms in Spain and Denmark. Research in veterinary science, 93(3), 1231-1240.


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