Nutrizione del vitello
1-Reviewing nutrient delivery from birth to weaning; Mike Van Amburgh Department of Animal Science Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
2-S. Godden, Colostrum Management for Dairy Calves, DVM, DVSc; Vet Clin Food Anim 24 (2008) 19-39.
3-Anderson, K. L., T. G. Nagaraja, and J. L. Morrill. 1987. Rumen metabolic development in calves weaned conventionally or early. J. Dairy Sci. 70: 1000-1005.
4-Kertz, A. F., L. R. Prewitt, and J. P. Everett. 1979. An early weaning calf program: Summarization and review. J. Dairy Sci. 62: 1835-1843.
5-Otterby, D. E., and J. G. Linn. 1981. Advances in nutrition and management of calves and heifers. J. Dairy Sci. 64: 1365-1377.
6-Bartol, F. F., A. A. Wiley, and C. A. Bagnell. 2008. Epigenetic programming of porcine endometrial function and the lactocrine hypothesis. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 43: 273–-279.
7-Blum, J. W., and H. Hammon. 2000. Colostrum effects on the gastrointestinal tract, and on nutritional, endocrine and metabolic parameters in neonatal calves. Livest. Prod. Sci. 66: 151-159.
8- Nocek, J. E., D. G. Braund, and R. G Warner. 1984. Influence of neonatal colostrum administration, immunoglobulin, and continued feeding of colostrum on calf gain, health and serum protein. J. Dairy Sci. 67:319-333.
9-DeNise, S. K., J. D. Robison, G. H. Stott and D. V. Armstrong. 1989. Effects of passive immunity on subsequent production in dairy heifers. J. Dairy Sci. 72: 552-554.
10-de Paula Vieira, A., V. Guesdon. A. M. de Passille, M. A von Keyserlingk and D. M. Weary. 2008. Behavioral indicators of hunger in dairy calves. Applied Anim. Behavior Sci. 109: 180-189.
11-Robison, J. D., G. H. Stott and S. K. DeNise. 1988. Effects of passive immunity on growth and survival in the dairy heifer. J. Dairy Sci. 71: 1283-1287.
12-Donovan, G. A., I. R. Dohoo, D. M. Montgomery and F. L. Bennett. 1998. Associations between passive immunity and morbidity and mortality in dairy heifers in Florida, USA. Prev. Vet. Med. 34: 31-46
13-Wittum, T. E. and L. J. Perion. 1995. Passive immune status at postpartum hour 24 and long-term health and performance of calves. Am. J. Vet. Res. 56: 1149-1154.
14-Faber, S. N., N. E. Faber, T. C. McCauley, and R. L. Ax. 2005. Case Study: Effects of colostrum ingestion on lactational performance. Prof. Anim. Scientist 21: 420-425.
15-Early Life Management and Long-Term Productivity of Dairy Calves; M. E. Van Amburgh, E. Raffrenato, F. Soberon and R. W. Everett Department of Animal Science Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
16-Soberon F., and M. E. Van Amburgh. 2011. Effects of colostrum intake and pre-weaning nutrient intake on post-weaning feed efficiency and voluntary feed intake. J. Dairy Sci. 94: 69-70 (Abstr.).
17-National Research Council. 2001. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th rev. E., Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington, D.C.
18-Foldager, J. and C. C. Krohn. 1994. Heifer calves reared on very high or normal levels of whole milk from birth to 6-8 weeks of age and their subsequent milk production. Proc. Soc. Nutr. Physiol. 3. (Abstr.).
19-Foldager, J., C. C. Krohn and Lisbeth Morgensen. 1997. Level of milk for female calves affects their milk production in first lactation. Proc. European Assoc. Animal Prod. 48th Annual Meeting. (Abstr.).
20-Bar-Peled, U., B. Robinzon, E. Maltz, H. Tagari, Y. Folman, I. Bruckental, H. Voet, H. Gacitua, and A. R. Lehrer. 1997. Increased weight gain and effects on production parameters of Holstein heifers that were allowed to suckle. J. Dairy Sci. 80: 2523-2528.
21-Ballard, C., H. Wolford, T. Sato, K., Uchida, M. Suekawa, Y. Yabuuchi, and K. Kobayashi. 2005. The effect of feeding three milk replacer regimens preweaning on first lactation performance of Holstein cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 88: 22 (abstr.).
22-Drackley JK, Pollard BC, Dann HM and Stamey JA 2007. First-lactation milk production for cows fed control or intensiﬁed milk replacer programs as calves. Journal of Dairy Science 90 (suppl. 1), 614 (abstract).
23 Everett, R. W., and F. Schmitz. 1994. Dairy genetics in 1994 and beyond. Cow and sire evaluation using test-day records, DairyGene, and DairyView for farm management. Pages 4–39 in Mimeo Ser. No. 170, Cornell Coop. Ext., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY.
24-Brown, E. G., M. J. VandeHaar, K. M. Daniels, J. S. Liesman, L. T. Chapin, J. W. Forrest, R. M. Akers, R. E. Pearson, and M. S. Weber Nielsen. 2005b. Effect of increasing energy and protein intake on mammary development in heifer calves J. Dairy Sci. 88: 595-603.
25-Meyer, M. J., A. V. Capuco, D. A. Ross, L. M. Lintault, and M. E. Van Amburgh. 2006a. Developmental and nutritional regulation of the prepubertal heifer mammary gland: I. Parenchyma and fat pad mass and composition. J Dairy Sci. 89: 4289-4297.
26-Meyer, M. J., A. V. Capuco, D. A. Ross, L. M. Lintault, and M. E. Van Amburgh. 2006b. Developmental and nutritional regulation of the prepubertal bovine mammary gland: II. epithelial cell proliferation, parenchymal accretion rate, and allometric growth. J. Dairy Sci. 89: 4298–4304
27-Castells, Ll., A. Bach, G. Araujo, C. Montoro, and M. Terre. 2012. Effect of different forage sources on performance and feeding behavior of Holstein calves. J. Dairy Sci. 95: 286-293.
28-Khan, M. A., D. M. Weary and M. A. G. von Keyserlingk. 2011. Hay intake improves performance and rumen development of calves fed higher quantities of milk. J. Dairy Sci. 94: 3547-3553.
29-Bach, A. 2013. Does the Physical Form of the Feeds Offered to Young Calves Make a Difference in Performance? 25th DISCOVER Conference on Food Animal Agriculture: New Developments in Immunity, Nutrition, and Management of the Preruminant Calf.
30-Kertz, A. 2013. Does the Formulation and Physical Form of a Calf Starter Make any Difference to the Calf? 25th DISCOVER Conference on Food Animal Agriculture: New Developments in Immunity, Nutrition, and Management of the Preruminant Calf.
31-Castells, Ll., A. Bach, G. Araujo, C. Montoro, and M. Terre. 2012. Effect of different forage sources on performance and feeding behavior of Holstein calves. J. Dairy Sci. 95: 286-293.
32-Montoro, C. E. K. Miller-Cushon, T. J. DeVries, and A. Bach. 2013. Effect of physical form of forage on performance, feeding behavior, and digestibility of Holstein calve. J. Dairy Sci. 96: 1117-1124.
33-Brinton A. Hopkins and Lon W. Whitlow Dairy Nutrition Extension Specialists, Feeding Dairy Heifers from Weaning to Calving.
La produzione di etanolo (impiegato come bio-carburante) a partire dal mais è ormai largamente diffusa in diverse parti del mondo, soprattutto negli Stati Uniti. Alcuni sottoprodotti di questa distillazione (come i DDGS ossia “distillers dried grains with solubles”) vengono impiegati nell’alimentazione animale.